Reece De Zylva1 , Elissa Mortimer1,2 , Emma Miller3 , George Tsourtos2 , Sharon Lawn2 , Carlene Wilson2,4,5 , Jonathan Karnon2 , Richard Woodman2 and Paul Ward1
1 Research Centre for Public Health, Equity and Human Flourishing, Torrens University Australia, 88 Wakefield St, Adelaide, SA 8000, Australia.
2 College of Medicine and Public Health, Flinders University, Bedford Park, SA, Australia.
3 The Stretton Institute, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, Australia.
4 School of Psychology and Public Health, La Trobe University, Bundoora, VIC, Australia.
5 Olivia Newton-John Cancer Wellness and Research Centre, Austin Health, Heidelberg, VIC, Australia.
Smoking and resulting health problems disproportionately impact low socioeconomic status (SES) individuals. Building resilience presents an approach to ‘closing the gap’. Mindfulness-based interventions and setting realistic goals are preferred in low socioeconomic communities. We aim to test if these interventions, delivered online and consolidated with peer support offered via ex-smokers, are successful in promoting smoking cessation and resilience. Our conceptualisation of resilience encompasses the inner capacity/skills and external resources (e.g., social support) which smokers utilise to bounce back from adversity. We include a process evaluation of barriers/facilitators to interventions and cost-effectiveness analysis (from health system perspective).
We plan a four-arm parallel 12-month RCT with a 6-month follow-up to test the efficacy of three group-based interventions each followed by peer support. Arm 1: mindfulness-integrated cognitive behavioural therapy; Arm 2: mindfulness training; Arm 3: setting realistic goals; Arm 4: active control group directed to quit services. All interventions will be administered online. Participants are adult smokers in Australia (N 812) who have an average weekly household income less than $457AUD or receive welfare benefits. Group-based interventions will occur over 6 months, followed by 6 months of forum-based peer support. Primary outcome: self-reported 14-day period prevalence of smoking abstinence at 6 months, with remote biochemical verification of saliva cotinine (< 30 ng/mL). Secondary outcomes include: internal resilience (Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale-25); external resilience (ENRICHD social support tool); quality-adjusted life years (EQ-5D-5L); self-efficacy for smoking abstinence (Smoking-Abstinence Self-Efficacy Questionnaire); motivation to quit smoking (Biener and Abrams Contemplation Ladder); nicotine dependence (Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependency); equanimity (Equanimity Scale-16); stress (Perceived Stress Scale-10); goal assessment/attainment (Problems and Goals Assessment Scale).
This study is the first to compare resilience interventions for low SES smokers which have been identified by them as acceptable. Our various repeated measures and process evaluation will facilitate exploration of mechanisms of impact. We intervene within the novel framework of the Psychosocial Model of Resilience, applying a promising paradigm to address a critical and inequitable public health problem.
Addiction Science & Clinical Practice (2023) 18:7