| MiCBT Research – selected studies

Confirmation and Validation of the Equanimity Scale-16 (ES-16)

Jill Cheever1, Bruno A. Cayoun2, Bradley Elphinstone3 & Alice G. Shires2,4

1 Graduate School of Health, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, Australia
2 MiCBT Institute, Hobart, Australia
3 Swinburne University, Melbourne, Australia
4 Graduate School of Health, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, Australia

Abstract
Objectives
Equanimity is an accepting and non-reactive mental state that has gained increased recognition as a key mechanism of mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs). The recently developed Equanimity Scale-16 (ES-16) provides a measure of equanimity that can be used to assess such interventions; however, to date, evidence of its factor structure and temporal stability is lacking. The present study aimed to provide the first confirmatory factor analysis of the ES-16, and to further examine the validity and test-retest reliability of the measure.

Method
The Qualtrics online platform was used to administer the ES-16 and other questionnaires in order to assess validity and collected demographic information in 395 adults from the general community (76.2% females and 23.8% males). Questionnaires were then re-administered four weeks later to assess test-retest reliability.

Results
Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that one- or two-factor (i.e., Experiential Acceptance, Non-reactivity) models provided adequate model fit with the addition of covariances between semantically similar items. However, adequate model fit was also obtained with a bi-factor model, suggesting that there is an underlying unidimensionality as all items tap into the latent equanimity construct. The ES-16 showed good internal consistency (ω = 0.90); test-retest reliability (n = 161; r = 0.81, p < 0.001) over four weeks; and convergent validity, illustrated by significant correlations in the expected directions with the Two-Factor Equanimity Scale, Depression Anxiety Stress Scales, and Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale-Short Form.

Conclusions
The present results support previous research showing that the ES-16 is a valid and reliable self-report measure to assess overall trait equanimity. Given the central role of equanimity in MBIs, the ES-16 may also assist in further understanding mechanisms of change in MBIs.

Mindfulness Volume 13 Issue 11, November 2022
DOI https://doi.org/10.1007/s12671-022-02029-9

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