Investigator: Arwen Dyer
Supervisor: Dr Bruno Cayoun
Co-supervisor: Associate Professor Clive Skilbeck
Institute: University of Tasmania, School of Psychology
Mindfulness has been defined “as a mental state[…]experienced as a heightened sensory awareness of the present moment, free from judgement, reactivity and identification to the experience” (Cayoun, 2011, p.1) and has been shown to be difficult to measure directly through self-report questionnaires, making the results of mindfulness-based interventions difficult to interpret. The present study developed an item pool for a new questionnaire, the Multidimensional Mindfulness Inventory (MMI), intended to measure mindfulness-related skill sets by measuring multidimensional levels of human qualities known to develop as a result of mindfulness practice. Items were based on thirteen skill sets derived from Buddhist psychology constructs, the Eightfold Noble Path and the Seven Factors of Enlightenment.
Two hundred items were initially constructed and condensed according to specific criteria, ensuring good content (face and ecological) validity and inter-rater reliability. The resulting 130 items were submitted to thirteen participants known to be experts in mindfulness practice, teaching and research for their expert peer review. Participants rated each item and made recommendations. As anticipated, five items per skill set with a mean endorsement score above 2.00 ("moderately endorse”) on a 5-point Likert scale were retained. Inter-item correlations were often moderate to high and statistically significant, but considered as trends only due to the limited sample. Additionally, there was a strong degree of similarity between all endorsement scores according to Kendall’s Concordance Analyses. Retained items were re-worded according to participants’ recommendations and item development criteria, which improved content validity. This resulted in a 65-item pool that future studies can use for psychometric analysis.